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Miami-Dade Fire Chief talked about rescue operations for a condominium in Miami.

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The survey identified four locations along Miami Beach where the ground was sinking.Champlan Towers South on the upper right was sinking at the slowest speed

A report detailing the sinking of the Champlain Towers South Building before Thursday’s horrific collapse revealed other areas of Miami Beach where the building was at risk of collapse due to land subsidence and coastal floods. explained.

Investigations have revealed significant coastal floods in southwestern South Beach. We also identified other parts of northeastern Miami Beach where the ground sank.

This report was made by Simon Udwinsky, a professor of the Department of Global Environmental Studies at Florida International University. He surveyed Miami Beach and Virginia’s coastal towns last year to find out where coastal floods could have affected the ground and subsided.

When the Champlan Tower collapsed on Thursday, Wdowinski said it was natural given his work last year.

It’s unclear if he issued any warnings to building operators after conducting an investigation last year.

Since the 1990s, the ground beneath the building has been found to sink at a rate of 1.9 mm each year.

Another place where the same thing happened is in the area around Parkview Island near where the elementary school is located.

The patch on that land sinks faster than the land under Champlain Towers South-2.3 mm per year.

Further south, there are two sites in the Flamingo / Lumus region of South Beach, and the Wdowinski team has identified them sinking at rates of 2.2 mm and 2 mm per year. They are located in a residential and commercial district just east of Star Island, in a celebrity excursion.

He also discovered that North Bay Village, an island between Miami Beach and Miami, was sinking.

In an interview with USA Today on Thursday, Wdowinski said: We have detected it. ”

He argues that land subsidence did not collapse the building and that something else must have contributed to it.

In this study, we analyzed data from satellites using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Technology known as InSAR to edit datasets from 1992 to 1999.

The map shows Miami Beach on the left. The location was red and had a large amount of land subsidence compared to the blue coastal floods.

Studies show a map of Miami showing where the flooded and sunken ground is, depending on the situation.

The map shows Miami Beach on the left, where there was a lot of land subsidence (red) and coastal floods (blue).It reveals that there are other areas where the ground has calmed faster than where Champlain Tower South collapsed.

The team analyzed four sites where the ground was sinking. The figure above shows the site of the Champlan Tower, and everything else is part of the land near the apartments, stores and even the elementary school. They were all sinking faster than the Champlan Tower site.Researchers say you don't have to be vigilant, as this alone won't collapse the building.

The team analyzed four sites where the ground was sinking. The figure above shows the site of the Champlan Tower, and everything else is part of the land near the apartments, stores and even the elementary school. They were all sinking faster than the Champlan Tower site.Researchers say you don’t have to be vigilant, as this alone won’t collapse the building.

There was a moment when the central part of the tower fell first and the eastern part of the building collapsed

There was a moment when the central part of the tower fell first and the eastern part of the building collapsed

Research has shown that around Miami Beach, some of the cities built primarily in reclaimed wetlands are sunk at a rate of 1-3 millimeters per year.

In Norfolk, land subsidence was seen at similar rates along the coast and inland. In some areas, land subsidence was observed at a rate of up to 8 mm per year.

According to the United States Geological Survey, more than 80% of known land subsidence in the United States is the result of groundwater use, a “environmental impact that is often overlooked” by land and water use practices.

According to the agency, “land subsidence is a gradual or sudden subsidence of the earth’s surface due to the removal or displacement of earth’s material beneath the surface.”

It can occur at varying speeds and is recorded at speeds in excess of 200 millimeters per year in several parts of the world, including Jakarta, Indonesia.

Norfolk and Miami Beach were chosen as sites for the study because both communities have been repeatedly exposed to coastal floods over the past decade, researchers said in a study.

In Norfolk, floods occur in several parts of the city, which are characterized by low altitude.

A large-scale search and rescue operation is underway after the collapse of the beachfront condominium tower Champlain Towers South at around 1:30 am this morning in the Miami area of ​​the surfside. It was confirmed that one woman died and at least eight were injured

A large-scale search and rescue operation is underway after the collapse of the beachfront condominium tower Champlain Towers South at around 1:30 am this morning in the Miami area of ​​the surfside. It was confirmed that one woman died and at least eight were injured

Rescue teams rescued 35 people from the damaged building, and two, including a boy, were pulled out of the rubble in the early stages of the search.

Rescue teams rescued 35 people from the damaged building, and two, including a boy, were pulled out of the rubble in the early stages of the search.

The results show that about 97% of Miami Beach was stable during the observation period, but some localized subsidence areas were detected primarily in the western part of the city.

Studies show that most of the subsidence occurred in single-family homes built in reclaimed wetlands. However, the survey also specifically points out the Champlain Towers South Condominium.

“In some places, such as the eastern part of the city, the detected subsidence is from a 12-story high-rise condominium,” the report reads.

However, the study found that artificial islands located west of the city, such as the Venetian Islands and North Bay Village, recorded high subsidence rates of up to 3.8 millimeters per year.

Some parts of Miami Beach, such as Mid Beach, Bayshore, and Lagos, seemed to have low levels of subsidence.

“The rest of the city remained stable,” the report reads.

Fortunately, some of Miami Beach’s tallest buildings, such as the 44-story Green Diamond Tower and Blue Diamond Tower, appear to be in areas with low levels of land subsidence.

The report concludes that even if no regional subsidence has been recorded in South Florida, the geology of the area composed of karst limestone plateaus may contribute to the local subsidence. It seems.

Wdowinski uploaded a video to the Vimeo platform on Thursday explaining the results of his research and why it was done.

“There weren’t many observations in this part of the Atlantic coast at the time,” he said.

He said that 1-3 millimeters of subsidence per year is “quite small”, but “given the accumulation over time, it could be several inches over decades, which is our concern. It was. “

According to Wdowinski, InSar is used to monitor the building, and if the building cracks and moves, subsidence can also be seen.

“Another study investigating the detection of sinkholes in Midwest Florida found several buildings that had moved, and when we checked, we found that there were some cracks,” Wdowinski said. ..

Researchers said InSar technology is commonly used around the world to detect building movements.

“In most cases, these buildings have moved and there is no catastrophic collapse as they are here on the surfside-this was very disappointing,” he said.

Wdowinski said the western part of the city where researchers detected the settlement was where they expected it to see the settlement.

“There was a rare pocket we saw on the eastern surfside, known as the stable part of the city,” he said.

“I didn’t expect to see subsidence over there, so I didn’t pay much attention to it. That’s what the data shows, so we just recorded it.

He added: “The focus of our research was on land subsidence, not on trying to analyze things like damage to buildings, so we saw movement as a by-product of our analysis, and we’re not so careful. I didn’t pay, I just recorded it on paper.

The Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Team sprays water on the rubble as rescue operations continue late Thursday when the wings of a 12-story seaside condominium building collapse.

The Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Team sprays water on the rubble as rescue operations continue late Thursday when the wings of a 12-story seaside condominium building collapse.

Wdowinski, who previously conducted a number of land subsidence surveys, including a land subsidence survey in Mexico City, said in a video Thursday that the Mexico City Metro elevated road collapsed on May 3, killing 26 people and killing 79. He said he was injured. Previously detected land subsidence.

He said the land subsidence seen at Miami Beach would occur in “small pockets” the size of a house than what he had detected in Mexico City.

“In some cases, the building may not have been built properly and may be cracked due to problems with the building itself, but it still works. This technology can detect it.”

On Miami Beach, the city is built on a rocky base on the eastern side of Barrier Island. The west was made up of reclaimed wetlands before the house was built in the reclaimed wetlands. It tends to subside in a process called soil consolidation.

“On the eastern side of the city, where the buildings are built on rock, we expected no movement because the buildings and the ground beneath them are unlikely to move,” he said.

“Buildings can move because of the land, or because of cracks in the building, and hundreds of buildings are cracked and move … and that doesn’t mean they will collapse.”

He said there was “something from an engineering point of view that caused it to collapse”, which could have been from ground movements or cracks formed in the building in the 1990s.

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